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An Introduction to Ocean Turbulence海洋湍流引论

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An Introduction to Ocean Turbulence海洋湍流引论

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作  者: S. A. Thorpe 著

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出 版 社:水利图书*@GfalGr

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出版时间: 2007-11-1水利图书 O D6g5U:yobD

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字  数:水利图书Zu9^'i W*Sb

3]2@ Hn-e5O7e5w B B+{0版  次:水利图书*ar\.oe!~t%n

3V'b~1sh$p/ON0页  数: 240水利图书/}4xb k"pz oM

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印刷时间: 2007-11-1

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m IV"|TIr6Vj$h0开  本: 16开水利图书FQ8[K7QB L

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I S B N : 9780521676809水利图书_-w[s&e+|

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包  装: 平装

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E/Y}fZ5b0内容简介水利图书%Ox%O.H4KL

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This textbook provides an introduction to turbulent motion occurring naturally in the ocean on scales ranging from millimetres to hundreds of kilometres. It describes turbulence in the mixed boundary layers at the sea surface and seabed, turbulent motion in the density-stratified water between, and the energy sources that support and sustain ocean mixing. Little prior knowledge of physical oceanography is assumed. The text is supported by numerous figures, extensive further reading lists, and more than 50 exercises that are graded in difficulty. Detailed solutions to the exercises are available to instructors online at www.cambridge.org/9780521859486. This textbook is intended for undergraduate courses in physical oceanography, and all students interested in multidisciplinary aspects of how the ocean works, from the shoreline to the deep abyssal plains. It also forms a useful lead-in to the author's more advanced graduate textbook, The Turbulent Ocean (Cambridge University Press, 2005).

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  作者简介:

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  Steve Thorpe was a Senior Scholar at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he studied mathematics and fluid mechanics, his PhD being awarded in 1966. He then spent 20 years at the UK Institute of Oceanographic Science, before being appointed Professor of Oceanography at Southampton University in 1986. He has made laboratory experiments on internal waves and turbulent mixing, and has measured and developed instrumental and analytical methods for studying waves and mixing in lakes, as well as making seagoing studies of turbulence in the boundary layers of the deep ocean and shelf seas. Professor Thorpe was awarded the Walter Munk Award by the US Office of Naval Research and the Oceanography Society for his work on underwater acoustics, the Fridtjof Nansen medal of the European Geophysical Society for his fundamental experimental and theoretical contributions to the study of mixing and internal waves, and the Society's Golden Badge for introducing a scheme to assist young scientists. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1991 and is now an Emeritus Professor at the University of Southampton and an Honorary Professor at the School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor.

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Preface

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w1?n0`e,y(a0 Acknowledgements水利图书!t^$a"V)ib*jPP

a`UKe5xW0 Abbreviations水利图书TAy0Qs'tN

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 Standard parameters and symbols

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 Units and their symbols

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 SI prefixes

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"e9S kN K:~5hSm0 Approximate values of commonly used measures水利图书eo7}z(O"X0R%ML

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1 Turbulence, heat and waves

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 1.1 Introduction水利图书:l3Y QM d#Xb

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 1.2 Reynolds' experiment水利图书QLI'p6mn(E

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 1.3 Joule's experiment水利图书N`*KYO^

[I&[;O@ uD'^0 1.4 The surf zone: waves and turbulence

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t3sO \pM;t8P5zc0 1.5 The nature of turbulent flow水利图书\~3^F'W` Y\%?4N6H

r)R!~7GU$C[!U,l0  1.5.1 Stirring + diffusion = mixing水利图书:w9\X~OU

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  1.5.2 Entrainment and detrainment水利图书GQt*pd:Xu)Di

)klt7U q6{0 1.6 Shear, convergence and strain水利图书`T1WRT,{[B

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 1.7 Ocean stratification and buoyancy水利图书w2Ou M!L

8Y1t/G&L_h0  1.7.1 Density

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  1.7.2 Buoyancy, and the buoyancy frequency, N

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  1.7.3 The oceanic density profile水利图书tg$IR(?"k.D0P

\;u VS(Y6v4}@Z._0 1.8 Consequences of stratification水利图书'IKF Rk~"gA

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  1.8.1 Internal waves and turbulent motion水利图书Z2Dz!\mQ+s `*w~!n

q'b9Z0T"U%Fh0~3]0  1.8.2 Isopycnal and diapycnal mixing

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  Suggested further reading

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3z l\t{{_d qT'sX0  Further study水利图书 bqm{(m"c5N

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  Problems for Chapter 1

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%jQ;EE.KO(VaE02 Measurement of ocean turbulence水利图书i5@8aD:M8I}

|f~)]*uUdg/q0 2.1 Characteristics of turbulence

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  2.1.1 Structure水利图书S%p-O*z"P iQ

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  2.1.2 Stress and flux水利图书$Cq~:c X{t

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  2.1.3 Dissipation

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;[7m| I `"iz0 2.2 Transport by eddies水利图书1~8a0{bH/[w ?[

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  2.2.1 Reynolds stress

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  2.2.2 Heat and buoyancy flux

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fS5Xh2bi0 2.3 Energetics

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UhLD2H/c pEB0  2.3.1 Turbulent dissipation, e, and isotropy

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@@4C}O pK5@0Y0  2.3.2 The range and observed variation of水利图书^4i,_w1W [q Z(Z a-V;O

n/SQOLRF@0  2.3.3 The rate of loss of temperature variance, XT水利图书+l8QS+}!A A5T

o JQ8J;Y+L0  2.3.4 The Kolmogorov length scale, lK

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c#_,r3@ e3i6g0  2.3.5 The turbulence cascade and the structure of turbulence

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3ka3T3Y#@ |F-p0  2.3.6 The Taylor hypothesis and the spectrum of turbulent energy

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WOQj6w'psl02.4 The terms in the energy balance equation

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~zVs*h8\T\WAa0  2.4.1 The rate of production of turbulent kinetic energy by the mean flow

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  2.4.2 The turbulent potential energy

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h.k2W$sa*x0JUu0  2.4.3 The rate of dissipation水利图书C5TTO1j5~

kw%{{I-z?{ I02.5 Measurement techniques and instruments

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p&Pro-~2@e0  2.5.1 The first measurements of turbulence: spectra

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LQ{z4@1@%zO0  2.5.2 The air-foil probe: the measurement of水利图书*L"v5IU9ia"j

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  2.5.3 First measurements of Reynolds stress, and the related dissipation per unit area

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  2.5.4 Estimates of Reynolds stress and e using an ADCP

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  Suggested further reading水利图书'c-D A1`%_a)iX

%B3^+`%?%`ID0  Further study水利图书;Ro s@*Y:s.}rW

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  Problems for Chapter 2水利图书 u2] `iO+Si,O(`

9r|%~/_ I!?03 Turbulence in oceanic boundary layers

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pyD"G4rC03.1 Introduction: processes, and types of boundary layers

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}$m5esHx)C03.2 Convection in the absence of shear

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,f}RF\ny;}0  3.2.1 Convection below a cooled surface or over a heated seabed水利图书'A(q9IAo

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  3.2.2 Buoyant plumes and entrainment

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3.3 Stress and no convection; the law of the wall水利图书[K1q-a-a\M

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3.4 Stress and buoyancy flux水利图书JP"v1I)m^

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  3.4.1 The Monin-Obukov length scale

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b{o6h8U0  3.4.2 Diurnal and seasonal heat cycling of the mixed layer

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d5L'oG S @3`0  3.4.3 Other mixing processes in the upper ocean水利图书%s(v#K9T-dp-T

eY5g6p ZN0  3.4.4 The benthic (or bottom) boundary layer水利图书1G1ml3{f!{

eRnj-}N9X0  3.4.5 Tidal mixing and straining in shallow seas

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Ph)| D,ru0  Suggested further reading水利图书i,y;t YIgqF

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^+}8hi+l1|+|:]0  Problems for Chapter 3水利图书la&~z7o]DD P

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4 Turbulence in the ocean pycnocline

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5 Turbulent dispersion水利图书3c:J+J)IO

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6 The energetics of ocean mixing

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